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The "national people's tribunal for living wages and decent working conditions for garment workers" was convened to investigate widespread human rights abuses in the garment industry. Sakamma, a year-old mother-of-two working for Gap supplier Texport in Bengaluru, told the tribunal she earned just 22p an hour and that when she finished at the factory she had to work as a domestic help to top up her wages.
I have to do this and they sell one piece of clothing for more than I get paid in a month," she said. We don't have a good life, we live in pain for the rest of our life and die in pain. How much burden can a woman take? Husband, children, house and factory work — can we manage all these with such a meagre salary? So we are caught up in the debt trap.
Is there no solution for our problem? Like many of the women giving evidence, she said workers faced abuse if they failed to meet quotas. They want pieces an hour. When we can't meet the targets, the abuse starts. There is too much pressure; it is like torture. We can't take breaks or drink water or go to the toilet. The supervisors are on our backs all the time," she said.
But human rights campaigners accuse international brands of subcontracting to firms paying poverty wages to the people who make their clothes. A spokesperson for Texport denied setting unachievable targets and said abuse of workers was not tolerated. We are looking into this matter and will take appropriate action with our vendors, depending on our findings.
But the tribunal heard that a factory supplying Gap and Next paid as little as 26p an hour. The supplier — Pearl Global, based in Gurgaon, in Haryana state — admits it has underpaid workers for overtime and has required them to work illegally long hours, but said it had now repaid them.
It insists it complies with the legal minimum wage, though evidence submitted to the tribunal by one worker indicated that he was paid below the legal rate. Pearl Global was first exposed by the Observer for rights abuses in when it traded as House of Pearl, but it has continued to operate and supply the brands under its new name. Many workers at the tribunal claimed that long hours and poor health and safety conditions made them ill. They were mainly driven by the trade of gold and slaves on the coast of Guinea , spices in the Indian Ocean, and sugar cane in the New World.
They were also used for local triangular trade between several territories, like Goa-Macau-Nagasaki, trading products such as sugar, pepper, coconut, timber, horses, grain, feathers from exotic Indonesian birds, precious stones, silks and porcelain from the East, among many other products.
In the Indian Ocean, the trade in Portuguese factories was enforced and increased by a merchant ship licensing system: From the feitorias , the products went to the main outpost in Goa, then to Portugal where they were traded in the Casa da Índia , which also managed exports to India. Easily supplied and defended by sea, the factories worked as independent colonial bases. They provided safety, both for the Portuguese, and at times for the territories in which they were built, protecting against constant rivalries and piracy.
They allowed Portugal to dominate trade in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, establishing a vast empire with scarce human and territorial resources. Over time, the feitorias were sometimes licensed to private entrepreneurs, giving rise to some conflict between abusive private interests and local populations, such as in the Maldives.
Other European powers began to establish factories in the 17th century along the trade routes explored by Portugal and Spain, first the Dutch and then the English.
They went on to establish in conquered Portuguese feitorias and further enclaves, as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia, India, and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade. These factories provided for the exchange of products among European companies, local populations, and the colonies that often started as a factory with warehouses.
Usually these factories had larger warehouses to fit the products resulting from the increasing agricultural development of colonies, which were boosted in the New World by the Atlantic slave trade. In these factories, the products were checked, weighed, and packaged to prepare for the long sea voyage. In particular, spices, cocoa , tea , tobacco , coffee , sugar , porcelain , and fur were well protected against the salty sea air and against deterioration.
Information took a long time to reach the company headquarters, and this was dependent on an absolute trust. The American factories often played a strategic role as well, sometimes operating as forts, providing a degree of protection for colonists and their allies from hostile Indians and foreign colonists. York Factory was founded by the chartered Hudson's Bay Company in It was headquarters of the company for a long time, and was once the de facto government in parts of North America such as Rupert's Land , before European-based colonies existed.
It controlled the fur trade throughout much of British-controlled North America for several centuries, undertaking early exploration.
Its traders and trappers forged early relationships with many groups of American Indians, and a network of trading posts formed the nucleus for later official authority in many areas of Western Canada and the United States.
The early coastal factory model contrasted with the system of the French, who established an extensive system of inland posts and sent traders to live among the tribes of the region.
War broke out in Europe between France and England in the s, and the two nations regularly sent expeditions to raid and capture each other's fur trading posts. In , Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville , commander of the company's captured posts, defeated three ships of the Royal Navy in the Battle of the Bay on his way to capture York Factory by a ruse.
York Factory changed hands several times in the next decade and was finally ceded permanently in the Treaty of Utrecht. After the treaty, the Hudson Bay Company rebuilt York Factory as a brick star fort at the mouth of the nearby Hayes River , its present location. The United States government sanctioned a factory system from to , with factories scattered through the mostly territorial portion of the country.
The factories were officially intended to protect Indians from exploitation through a series of legislation called the Indian Intercourse Acts. However, in practice, numerous tribes conceded extensive territory in exchange for the trading posts, as happened in the Treaty of Fort Clark in which the Osage Nation ceded most of Missouri at Fort Clark.
A blacksmith was usually assigned to the factory to repair utensils and build or maintain plows. The factories frequently also had some sort of milling operation associated with them. The factories marked the United States' attempt to continue a process originally pioneered by the French and then by the Spanish to officially license the fur trade in Upper Louisiana.
The Factories Act, (Act No. 63 of ), as amended by the Factories (Amendment) Act, (Act 20 of )), serves to assist in formulating national policies in India with respect to occupational safety and health in factories and docks in India. It deals with various problems concerning safety, health, efficiency and well-being of the persons at work metools.mld by: Parliament of India. Directory of Indian manufacturers - comprehensive and updated database of manufacturers and manufacturing companies from India classified into several product categories and sub-categories. Jul 09, · Built on 32 acres of land next to Samsung's original factory in India, the plant will allow the South Korean firm to nearly double the number of smartphones it makes in India every year from